The American Transportation Research Institute has released a new report detailing the costs of deploying and operating a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax.

ATRI’s Research Advisory Committee identified the study as a top research priority and aims to understand the opportunities and challenges of a federal system.

The research found that replacing the federal fuel tax with a VMT tax that is assessed on 272 million private vehicles could result in collection costs of more than $20 billion annually – or 300 times higher than the federal fuel tax.

“It’s clear that a VMT tax is a far more complicated and costly replacement for the fuel tax than many had anticipated,” said James Burg Trucking Company President and CEO Jim Burg.

“If a system like this is going to work for everyone, many years of thoughtful planning and federal leadership are needed.”

The full report can be read on ATRI’s website.